Site wide References for Back Pain for Posts & Pages Written on this Site

By Sherwin Nicholson Hons. BSc | SN Health Resources

All of the information that I provide on this site is written and published by myself.  All of my written content is considered original and any other duplicated articles found elsewhere online outside of this site is considered secondary.  Any articles that are written on this site by another author are indicated at the top of each article.

Each article, post or page that I have written has my original content but may also contain referenced content from outside sources.  I will reference any outside source content to respect and abide with copyright policy.  Much of the content that I do write also comes from my own training and experience and is referenced from my degree and scientific research.

All outside content that I use will be referenced mainly on this page with the book, article, author, publisher, journal and date.  Additional reference detail may or may not be provided if not available.

Some of the references  that I use may be referenced in more than one page or post and may be found on this page also.  Any references that I used for specific pages or posts will be found on the page or post itself.

I generally prefer to reference well known articles, publications and journals from the medical, health and scientific community.

Some references on various pages may have updated content that is more recent than the publication date of the article itself which I have written.  This is to help to update my sources where I may find it helpful or relevant to the readers.

The images that I publish are either the original property of Shutterstock, Public Domain, Free images or original image content produced by myself.

References Used for the Content of this Site:

  1. Back Pain – The Facts – John Lee, Clare Daniel, Suzanne Brook. NY. Oxford University Press – 2009. 617.564Lee
  2. End Back Pain & Neck Pain – Fortanasce, Vincent. 2012. 617.564For . Human Kinetics c2012.
  3. The Wharton’s Back Book – x2003. 617.564Wha. Emmaus, Pa. Rodale Inc.  Wharton, Jim.
  4. Back Pain – How to Build Core Stability for Lasting Relief – Gavine & Bonello. 2014. 617.56406Gav.  Allen & Unwin Publish.
  5. Heal Your Back – D. Borenstein, MD. 2011. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Inc. Http://  RD 771.B217. 617.564Bor
  6. Framework for the Lower Back – Nicholas DiNubile, MD. 2009. Rodale Books Inc. 617.564
  7. Treat Your Own Back – 2011. Robin McKenzie.  Gordon Soules Publishers. 9th Edition.
  8. Solving Back Problems – Dr. J. Sutcliffe. Timelife Custom Publishing. Health Fact File.  1999. RD768S82
  9. Core Training Anatomy – Dr. Abigail Ellsworth. Baker & Taylor Publishing Group, 2010.
  10. Delavier Stretching Anatomy – RA781.63D4513, 2010. Frederic Delavier. Human Kinetics Publishing.
  11. Strength Training Anatomy – Frederic Delavier. 2006. QM151.D454. 2nd edition. Human Kinetics Publishing.
  12. Wikipedia.
  16. (The National Institutes of Health)
  19. Management of chronic low back pain.Bogduk N1.-
  20. Acute pain-Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain.Casazza BA1.-
  21. Spinal stenosis-
  22. Herniated disc/Slipped Disk-
  23. Evaluation of a specific home exercise program for low back pain.-
  24. Early Management of Persistent Non-specific Low Back Pain. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 88
  25. Slipped disc- Overview-
  26. Exercise, not to exercise, or how to exercise in patients with chronic pain? Applying science to practice.-
  27. Mobilization Exercise-Comparison between Specific Lumber Mobilization and Core-Stability Exercises with Core-Stability Exercises Alone in Mechanical low back pain.-
  28. Effects of stabilization exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.-
  29. Predictors of response to exercise therapy for chronic low back pain: result of a prospective study with one year follow-up.-
  30. What are patient beliefs and perceptions about exercise for nonspecific chronic low back pain?-
  31. Sleep problems, exercise and obesity and risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain: the Norwegian HUNT study –
  32. Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation for back pain-
  33. Effect of lumbar stabilization and dynamic lumbar strengthening exercises in patients with chronic low back pain.-
  34. General information-Fact Sheet-NIH-
  36. Improving the Value of Medical Care for Patients with Back Pain   –  Arthur Wood, MD ,Sierra R. Matula, MD, MSHS ,Lawrence Huan, MD ,Eleni Linos, MD, MPH, DrPh Terry Platchek, MD ,Arnold Milstein, MD, MPH , Pain Med pnx049., DOI:, Published: 17 April 201
  37. Physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain: A follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. –  Heuch I1, Heuch I2, Hagen K3,4, Zwart JA1,5. PLoS One. 2017 Apr 10;12(4):e0175086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175086. eCollection 2017.
  38. Does exercise increase or decrease pain? Central mechanisms underlying these two phenomena. – Lima LV1, Abner TS1, Sluka KA1. J Physiol. 2017 Mar 29. doi: 10.1113/JP273355.
  39. Intervertebral Disk Degeneration and Repair – James Dowdell, MD  Mark Erwin, MD  Theodoe Choma, MD  Alexander Vaccaro, MD, PhD  James Iatridis, PhD  Samuel K. Cho, MD Neurosurgery (2017) 80 (3S): S46-S54. DOI: Published: 21 February 2017
  40. People with chronic low back pain have poorer balance than controls in challenging tasks. – da Silva RA1,2, Vieira ER3, Fernandes KB1,2, Andraus RA1,2, Oliveira MR1,2, Sturion LA1,2, Calderon MG1. Disabil Rehabil. 2017 Mar 10:1-7. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1294627.
  41. Chronic pain: How to approach these 3 common conditions – J Fam Pract. 2017 March;66(3):145-151,154-157 Author(s): Jill Schneiderhan, MD Carissa Orizondo, MD Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  42. Chronic low back pain and its association with lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral disc changes in adults. A case control study. – Karunanayake AL1, Pathmeswaran A2, Wijayaratne LS3. Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Feb 16. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.13026
  43. Non-drug therapies should be first line treatment for low back pain, US guidance says – BMJ 2017; 356 doi: (Published 15 February 2017) Cite this as: BMJ 2017;356:j840  Michael McCarthy
  44. Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Apr 4;166(7). doi: 10.7326/P17-9032. Epub 2017 Feb 14. DOI: 10.7326/P17-9032
  45. Effects of complex rehabilitation training on low back strength in chronic low back pain – Jaeyong Park, PhD1 and Jung Chul Lee, PhD2,*  J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Nov; 28(11): 3099–3104. Published online 2016 Nov 29. doi:  10.1589/jpts.28.3099 PMCID: PMC5140808
  46. Core Stability Exercise Versus General Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain. – Coulombe BJ1, Games KE2, Neil ER2, Eberman LE2. J Athl Train. 2017 Jan;52(1):71-72. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-51.11.16. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
  47. The effectiveness of home-based exercise programs for low back pain patients. – Anar SÖ1. Author informationJ  Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Oct;28(10):2727-2730. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
  48. Persistent back pain and sciatica in the United States: patient characteristics. – Long DM1, BenDebba M, Torgerson WS, Boyd RJ, Dawson EG, Hardy RW, Robertson JT, Sypert GW, Watts C. J Spinal Disord. 1996 Feb;9(1):40-58. Author information
  49. Low Back Pain – Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association – Anthony Delitto, PT, PhD, • Steven Z. George, PT, PhD, • Linda Van Dillen, PT, PhD, • Julie M. Whitman, PT, DSc, • Gwendolyn Sowa, MD, PhD Published: Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2012 Volume:42 Issue:4 Pages:A1–A57 DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2012.42.4.A1
  50. Exercise as a treatment for chronic low back pain – James Rainville, MDCorrespondence information about the author MD James RainvilleEmail the author MD James Rainville, Carol Hartigan, MD, Eugenio Martinez, MD, Janet Limke, MD, Cristin Jouve, MD, Mark Finno, MDmDOI:
  51. Low Back Pain – Roy, Brad A. Ph.D., FACSM, FACHE; Vanichkachorn, Greg M.D. ACSM’S Health & Fitness Journal: March/April 2013 – Volume 17 – Issue 2 – p 5 doi: 10.1249/FIT.0b013e3182829609 DEPARTMENTS: Fitness Focus
  52. Low Back Pain – Denise M. Goodman, MD, MS; Alison E. Burke, MA; Edward H. Livingston, MD  JAMA. 2013;309(16):1738. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.3046
  53. Lower back pain – Eric R. Castillo Daniel E. Lieberman Evol Med Public Health (2015) 2015 (1): 2-3. DOI: Published: 10 January 2015
  54. Management of chronic low back pain – Nikolai Bogduk Med J Aust 2004; 180 (2): 79-83.
  55. Self-management education en masse: effectiveness of the Back Pain: Don’t Take It Lying Down mass media campaign – Rachelle Buchbinder Med J Aust 2008; 189 (10 Suppl): S29.
  56. Low Back Pain in Athletes – Javad Mortazavi 1 ; Jayran Zebardast 2 ; and Babak Mirzashahi 1, *1 Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran2 Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015 June; 6(2): e24718 , DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.6(2)2015.24718 | PMID: 26448841 | PMCID: PMC4592766
  57. U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health
  58. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy – Volume 46, Issue 4, 2000, Pages 259-269
  59. A systematic review of workplace interventions to prevent low back pain – Christopher G Maher. Author links open the author workspace.Opens the author workspace Opens the author workspaceThe University of Sydney
  60. Back pain in children and adolescents DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.96B6.33075 Published 2 June 2014
  61. Opioids Versus Physical Therapy for Management of Chronic Back Pain – Cassandra A. Gladkowski, RN, BSN; Chelsey L. Medley, RN, BSN; Heather M. Nelson, RN, BSN; Angela Tallie Price, RN, BSN; Margaret Harvey, PhD, APRN-BC Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2014;10(8):552-559.
  62. Acetaminophen in the Management of Acute and Subacute Low Back and Neck Pain – Megan Sands-Lincoln, PhD, MPHCorrespondence information about the author PhD, MPH Megan Sands-LincolnEmail the author PhD, MPH Megan Sands-Lincoln, David R. Goldmann, MD Evidence-Based Medicine, Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa DOI:
  63. Chartered Society of Physiotherapy –
  64. Individual and intervention-related factors associated with adherence to home exercise in chronic low back pain: a systematic review. – Beinart NA(1), Goodchild CE, Weinman JA, Ayis S, Godfrey EL. 1. Spine J. 2013 Dec;13(12):1940-50. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.08.027. Epub 2013Oct 26.
  65. Effects of Stabilization Exercises on Health-Related Quality of Life in Women With Chronic Low Back Pain. – Moussouli M(1), Vlachopoulos SP, Kofotolis ND, Theodorakis Y, Malliou P, Kellis
  66. Predictors of response to exercise therapy for chronic low back pain: result of a prospective study with one year follow-up. – Cecchi F(1), Pasquini G, Paperini A, Boni R, Castagnoli C, Pistritto S, Macchi C. 1. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2014 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24429917  [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]


References are updated monthly